Lepidopteran pests tend to feed on leaves. In accordance with Federal Law and US Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability. The authors suggested that each key insect pest in rice is affected by between 50 and 60 species of natural enemy. For example, the typically hot climate of countries such as Laos and Myanmar can cause problems during the Trichogramma spp. This will be more severe under the increasing temperatures predicted by current climate change models and it is still difficult to predict whether a given Trichogramma species, even when selected for temperature tolerance, will be able to adapt and perform under high-temperature conditions. During this event, the research outcomes of the projects were presented to a wider national and international audience, thus strengthening south-south and north-south research partnerships. 2008, Horgan and Crisol 2013). In total, 1,800 stem borer egg masses were collected and 9,000 sentinel egg cards (with several hundred Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), both Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, eggs attached to each) were exposed in the rice fields during these comprehensive surveys. These cost–benefit analyses have not included potential long-term benefits such as the wide-area recovery of natural enemy populations and benefits for human health and the environment. Previous studies have often demonstrated relatively high incidences of Trichogramma spp. Rearing rooms were approximately 100 m2 and were mainly established in previously existing buildings, although some were established in newly-constructed, purpose-built buildings (see Fig. The implementation of IPM measures and the data assessment in IPM and control fields (where conventional pest management was practiced) were conducted by project partners in the respective countries. (B) Training TRF staff in Laos. 2019). CABI is an international intergovernmental organization and we gratefully acknowledge the core financial support from our member countries (and lead agencies) including the United Kingdom (Department for International Development), China (Chinese Ministry of Agriculture), Australia (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research), Canada (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada), the Netherlands (Directorate-General for International Cooperation), and Switzerland (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). (D) Monitoring for pests by scientists from Laos. 2), together with the built capacity (Fig. Muthayya, S., J. D. Sugimoto, S. Montgomery, and G. F. Maberly. However, the key component of the strategy was the application of Trichogramma spp. For example, in Xing’an County, China, the local partner PPS has already expanded the Trichogramma-based technology to other target pests in high-value crops such as grapes and sugarcane, even without considering a better-adapted Trichogramma species. Demonstration plots of approximately one hectare were set up in farmers’ fields in Laos, Myanmar, and the two Provinces in southwestern China (one plot each) with the aim of raising awareness of IPM among farmers. Input use varied considerably among the three countries with Chinese farmers using the highest amount of pesticides and fertilizers. There is hardly any cultivated plant that is not attacked by at least one lepidopteran pest. Furthermore, benign pesticides, e.g., those with higher selectivity, including some biopesticides, are unavailable or have limited availability in most GMS countries. Implementation of the IPM strategy resulted in higher rice yields (2–10%), an increase in natural enemy abundance (e.g., twice as many spiders), and a reduction in insecticide applications (1.5 fewer applications).

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