No, Is the Subject Area "Psychological stress" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235883.t003. The advantage of multivariate latent growth models is that they allow for the estimation of intercept‐slope effects that provide insights into interactions between change processes of two or more constructs. Lastly, the COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly changing. Mund & Nestler, 2019) are plagued by convergence issues (Golec de Zavala et al., 2019; Osborne, Milojev, & Sibley, 2017). This freely available special issue of Group Dynamics features articles on virtual work and therapy in the era of COVID-19. However, it seems reasonable to suspect that they peak at the beginning and then slow down as people adapt to the new situation (cf. Significant differences were observed for parental status for the following groups: Between respondents without children and those with children aged 16 or below in terms of depression, health status, and concerns about family and children (ps < .001); Between respondents without children and those with children aged 17 or above for stress, anxiety, depression, epidemic consciousness, medical sufficiency, and concerns about children (ps < .05); Between respondents with children aged 16 or below and those with children aged 17 or above in relation to stress, epidemic consciousness, health status, likelihood of survival, and concerns about family and children (ps < .05). Intuitively, one may argue that, as cases and casualties increased, including within people's immediate surroundings, many obtained first‐hand evidence of the pandemic that was hard to reconcile with some of their theories. Research Department, Kyushu Open University, Fukuoka, Japan, Roles This finding implied that excessive respect for authority might disturb people to act appropriately during the COVID-19 pandemic. Key results of the constrained cross‐lagged panel model. In contrast, married people obtained higher scores in epidemic consciousness, preventive behavior, material sufficiency, health status, and concerns about family and children. To date, the US is the country with the greatest number of deaths caused by COVID‐19 (WHO, 2020b), and in light of our findings, conspiracy beliefs likely contributed to this. Robust fit statistics for each model and robust χ. Unstandardised estimates of slope and intercept factors of retained models are reported. here. Citation: Qian K, Yahara T (2020) Mentality and behavior in COVID-19 emergency status in Japan: Influence of personality, morality and ideology. Age had a significant positive effect on epidemic consciousness (F (1, 1854) = 39.152, p < .001; R2 = .021, β = .144), material sufficiency (F (1, 1854) = 11.181, p = .001; R2 = .006, β = .077), and confidence in doctors (F (1, 1854) = 14.249, p < .001; R2 = .008, β = .087). The Japanese version of the Moral Foundation Questionnaire (MFQ, Q5-1 to Q5-30) and the scale of ideology (Q5-31 to Q5-35) validated by Murayama and Miura [35] were used. We observed three correlations between slopes and intercepts. health literacy). Yes PTSD and Trauma/Bias, Discrimination, and Equity The last section tested the scales of moral foundation and ideology. As stated later in Survey development and Data analysis, the planned 13 predictors include 5 factors for personality, 5 for morality, and 3 for ideology. The study is subject to limitations. [7] identified public responses and mental health modulated by COVID-19 in Japan from a predictive aspect. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235883.t004. Roles We used data collected at five timepoints during the early outbreak of the virus in the US—a time in which social distancing measures would have been highly effective in preventing its spread. Thus, measures and operations specific to different demographic groups are required. Yet, the strictness and duration of these measures varied across states, with the first states announcing reopening as early as 20 April 2020, the last day of our data collection period. Indeed, although most states had at least advisory social distancing measures in place at that time (Haffajee & Mello, 2020), nonadherence rates remained close to 25 per cent, which is substantially higher than in many other countries (European Parliament, 2020). Funding acquisition, First, the present study aimed to clarify the impact of personality, morality, and ideology on the citizens’ mentality, opinion, and behavior during the COVID-19 crisis, wherein we predicted that certain factors related to personality, morality, and political ideology affect the mental health status, opinion, and preventive behavior of COVID-19 patients. Conspiracy theories about the origins of COVID‐19 are widespread and have even been propagated by highly ranked state officials and politicians in the US. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations All scales were well fitted to their expected factor models. Other quantitative data (Q3-3, Q3-15 to Q3-20, Q3-34, Q3-39, and Q3-40) as well as the data of most categorical variables (Q3-2 to Q3-10, Q3-14, Q3-35, and Q3-41) were directly used for statistical analysis without pre-processing. Extending this work, we here provided a longitudinal test of the link between conspiracy beliefs and health‐related behavior during a large‐scale pandemic. Model 2 (linear growth model) included the latent intercept factor and a latent slope factor indicative of linear change. Here, we regressed the T2 score of each variable on its own T1 value and that of the other variable, the T3 score on its own T2 value and that of the other variable, and so on. This constrained model showed a close fit to the data, χ2(35) = 47.746, p = .074, CFI = 0.990; TLI = 0.987; SRMR = 0.047; RMSEA = 0.037, 90% CI [0.006, 0.046], pclose = .980. For both social distancing and conspiracy beliefs, model fit improved significantly when linear slope factors were added (Model 2), suggesting that both variables changed across timepoints. For factors of morality, the moral foundation of “harm,” which denotes avoiding harming others and providing care and protection, negatively influenced stress, anxiety, underestimation of the pandemic, and positively influenced the preventive behavior, material sufficiency, likelihood of infection, concerns regarding family and children, and influence on life. All respondents joined the survey online using Internet browsers installed in their devices, such as computers, tablets, and smartphones. The Data analysis section will report the method used to validate the scales. Nineteen items were replicated from a previous research in China [4], namely, symptoms (Q3-1) and treatment experience (Q3-2) in the past 14 days, self-rated health status (Q3-3), status of insurance (Q3-4), contact with COVID-19 cases (Q3-5 = close contact; Q3-6 = indirect contact; Q3-7 = contact with suspected infections or infected materials), route of transmission (Q3-8 = droplets; Q3-9 = contaminated objects; Q3-10 = airborne), main source of (Q3-14) and satisfaction with (Q3-15) disclosed health information, confidence in doctors (Q3-16), likelihood of infection (Q3-17) and survival (Q3-18), concerns about infections among family members (Q3-19) especially young children (Q3-20), and preventive behaviors, such as avoiding sharing of tableware (Q3-25) and handwashing with soap (Q3-26). These results indicate that the scales used had high internal consistency and reliability. Software, COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. Married people and parents of young children experienced heavy mental burden and concerns about family and children. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Previous studies in the United States showed that political ideology influenced concerns and behaviors toward COVID-19 [26] and trust in science agencies [27]. The significant positive linear slope factor indicated that social distancing increased as the pandemic unfolded, while the significant negative quadratic slope factor indicated that this increase was the greatest at the beginning of the pandemic and then gradually decelerated. For instance, one survey found that, between 19 March and 29 March, 92–99 per cent of respondents from Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands adhered to different types of social distancing measures (Meier et al., 2020). The results also denoted that people living in emergency regions suffered from increased stress, less material supply, and more influence on life and work. Age was the only quantitative data in Q1; thus, simple regression analyses were run with age as a predictor. Age had a significant negative effect on stress (F (1, 1854) = 36.978, p < .001; R2 = .019, β = −.140), anxiety (F (1, 1854) = 15.463, p < .001; R2 = .008, β = −.091), depression (F (1, 1854) = 38.066, p < .001; R2 = .020, β = −.142), preventive behavior (F (1, 1854) = 4.511, p = .034; R2 = .002, β = −.049), medical sufficiency (F (1, 1854) = 8.821, p = .003; R2 = .005, β = −.069), likelihood of infection (F (1, 1854) = 15.610, p < .001; R2 = .008, β = −.091) and survival (F (1, 1854) = 7.388, p = .007; R2 = .004, β = −.063), and concerns about family (F (1, 1854) = 12.426, p < .001; R2 = .007, β = −.082) and children (F (1, 1854) = 9.655, p = .002; R2 = .005, β = −.072). RI‐CLPM; Hamaker et al., 2015) or autoregressive latent trajectory models (e.g.

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