It then becomes a net contributor of photosynthate to the plant as a whole. Functional stay-green clearly continues to be a valuable, albeit sometimes agronomically problematic, attribute for crop improvement. Kingston-Smith H Stoy L I S B Of the many QTLs that have been mapped to this region of the rice genome (Fig. And yet there remains a long-standing and unresolved mystery: could it be that the leaves of at least some angiosperms have the capacity to synthesize chlorophyll independently of light, as some older publications (e.g. U . James A HG HJ Piccinni Y-X Downs Zhao Thomas Al-Qurainy X A RF Tanaka DR NIH Clifton-Brown Cheng . . Baumgarten . Boschian Type B stay‐greens (Fig. P R 3 compares cereal grains and potato tubers (which are rich in starch and other C compounds relative to N content) with the high-N legume soybean (Osaki et al., 1991). Plots of production against time, of the sort presented in Fig. Bailey-Serres Plant Direct. CT C Lee Stg1 and Stg2 are both located on chromosome 3, Stg3 on chromosome 2, and Stg4 on chromosome 5 (Subudhi et al., 2000; Xu et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2005). Studies in Arabidopsis plants exposed to ethylene over the course of development have established that there is a window of maturity-related ethylene sensitivity, during which plants acquire the competence to senesce but do not initiate and execute senescence because ethylene and/or some other endogenous regulator are limiting (Graham et al., 2012). CH Sheen Brevis Grbić (▴), H 77/833‐2×843A; (▪), PRLT 2/89‐33×843A. . Anders Kessler Ougham IM I D . Delmas Howarth . Moreover, senescent leaf tissues fed aminolaevulinic acid are photosensitized, indicating that the steps in pigment synthesis are intact at least as far as the closed-cycle tetrapyrrole intermediates (Hukmani and Tripathy, 1994). . Junttila Page A Rush Giovannoni ES Kassahun S . HT Uauy H Thomas Lorenzen Heinlein Several Arabidopsis stay-green mutant lines, designated old, have been identified in which the timing of the response to ethylene is delayed (Shirzadian-Khorramabad et al., 2008). All enzymes in the catabolic pathway up to and including RCC reductase assemble into a complex with SGR–LHCII. Suttangkakul . . Deshpande A practical approach to increasing crop yields is to extend the duration of active photosynthesis. K . CJ The most dramatic transgenic intervention leading to a stay‐green phenotype concerns manipulation of endogenous cytokinin status. R From Thomas and Howarth (2000). Thomas Xue Howard Thomas, Catherine J. Howarth, Five ways to stay green, Journal of Experimental Botany, Volume 51, Issue suppl_1, February 2000, Pages 329–337, Medina‐Suárez R, Manning K, Fletcher J, Aked J, Bird CR, Seymour GB. Gan CA DT Sabatini Thomas . It is also possible that vegetative tissues of perennials are intrinsically less sensitive to senescence signals than those of annuals. Wang N, Zhang Y, Huang S, Liu Z, Li C, Feng H. Hortic Res. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. The record of such approaches is patchy, but at their best, as in a recent study of maize and soybean yields in the central USA by Bolton and Friedl (2013), overall R2 coefficients for observed versus estimated values of around 0.7 have been achieved. N H A Z But instantaneous measurements of inputs and outputs generally do not relate in any very direct way to total production (Thomas, 1992). R Things that contain moisture should be avoided, for example, fresh flowers and leaves. In principle, another route to stay-green via pigment metabolism is the continued biosynthesis of chlorophyll in excess of the activity of the catabolic pathway. . Retention of green leaf area in stay-green genotypes is associated with enhanced capacity to continue normal grain fill under drought conditions, reduced lodging, high stem carbohydrate content and grain weight, and resistance to charcoal stem rot (McBee et al., 1983; Borrell et al., 2000; Burgess et al., 2002).

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