DOI: 10.22215/timreview/1098. Edwards, Lilian, and Lachlan Urquhart. 2019. Share. Jaring, P., and Bäck, A. Twitter first surfaced as a news and social networking site in which users post content and interact with each other through messages called ‘tweets’. If consent was not obtained, then the same consideration should be given as with primary data. “An Analysis of the Consequences of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) on Social Network Research.” If there is no interaction with participants, then it may not be practical to obtain informed consent. Before choosing the right platform, it is important to look around and find out whether your colleagues are also active in those communities. You can also link your work in your tweets. “Public Concern About Monitoring Twitter Users and Their Conversations to Recruit for Clinical Trials: Survey Study.” Journal of Medical Internet Research 21 (10): e15455. ', interim guidance  for research involving humans, General University coronavirus information page, Security-sensitive or extremism-related research declaration, The Association of Internet Researchers ethics guidance (Association of Internet Researchers 2019), The British Psychological Society’s guidance on internet-mediated research (2017), The UK Research Integrity Office's advice on good practice in research: internet-mediated research, Ethical web research guidance [Bowser and Tsai (2015), Guidance for researchers using social media for health (Benton, Coppersmith, and Dredze 2017), A Taxonomy of Ethical Tensions in Inferring Mental Health States from Social Media (Chancellor et al. In today’s world social media is an ever-present facet of life that surrounds us. © 2020 NC State University. Most people use social media to be, well, social, and communicate with family, former colleagues, or keep in touch with old classmates. Samuel, Gabrielle, Gemma E. Derrick, and Thed van Leeuwen. Boyd, danah m., and Nicole B. Ellison. If possible, use a short, catchy text to attract your audience’s interest. Some questions that may be useful for researchers to consider as they design your research project or complete their application for ethical review: The ethical review process is not intended to be overly bureaucratic or make researchers risk-averse (Molina and Borgatti 2019) - these questions and the guidance are to help researchers improve their research project and protect participants from harm. “Cambridge University Rejected Facebook Study over ‘Deceptive’ Privacy Standards.” The Guardian. Remember that becoming an experienced social media user can help you increase the impact of your work and make lasting connections with other researchers in your field. The lack of reproducibility in much social media research may also make it difficult to use such research as a building block for further work (Hutton and Henderson 2018). Kotsios, Andreas, Matteo Magnani, Luca Rossi, Irina Shklovski, and Davide Vega. The GDPR means that data protection principles such as storage limitation, data minimisation and transparency apply (Kotsios et al. “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (1): 210–30. Wikipedia: Is it an Acceptable Source for an Academic Paper? 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. Twitter posts) cannot be considered as anonymous data and cannot be pseudonymised as they can always be linked back to their author via simple web searches. Below options and their features can help you decide which one is the best for you. Enago Academy - Learn. ‘You can like us on Facebook, Check us out on Instagram,’ or perhaps ‘Watch our channel on YouTube’, are just some of the hooks that companies will provide to further build their brand and increase their visibility. The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. 2017. (Benton, Coppersmith, and Dredze 2017)(Bowser and Tsai 2015)(Association of Internet Researchers 2019). 2017. All rights reserved. A study investigated whether it is possible to predict sexual orientation from images posted to online dating websites, partly because of the “lower cost (from the perspective of both the participants and researchers)”, although participants were not informed (Wang and Kosinski 2018). Reuter, Katja, Yifan Zhu, Praveen Angyan, NamQuyen Le, Akil A Merchant, and Michael Zimmer. The same rule applies. 2019. Even inferring special category data brings the requirement to manage and protect this data as you would special category data, in accordance with GDPR. Activity on social media presents a challenge to protecting participants' confidentiality because it can leave a visible, permanent and traceable online record that it might not be possible to fully delete. Is there a benefit for sharing research across social media? Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age. 2019. 2019. 2015. 2019). “Automating Dynamic Consent Decisions for the Processing of Social Media Data in Health Research.” Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. Writing about social media is interesting, yet quite a challenging assignment. Wang, Yilun, and Michal Kosinski. Princeton: Princeton University Press. data. Bowser, Anne, and Janice Y. Tsai. A good place to start is with the professional social networking site LinkedIn that allows you to make connections with people based on job interests. Moreover, there are almost one million new users to some form of social media each day, or a new user every 10 seconds; 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube alone every minute (Smith 2019). ResearchGate is a website that provides scientists with a forum to share and discuss their research as well as find collaborators. You can use it share updates on your research or a paper in a specific group or publicly. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Research may have exposed the identity of participants in Hong Kong’s “Umbrella” protests, showing that sometimes it may not be practical or even ethical to identify participants -  leading researchers to ask 'how can we balance protestors’ rights versus the rights of researchers? 2007. Flick, Catherine. (Information Commissioner’s Office 2019). While all social media outlets have the potential for massive reach, it all comes back to a matter of whom you connect with or engage. If you share your research on your personal account, then the only people that will see it are those whom you connect with. Research is about producing new information, and social media offers unique opportunities to present new content. As well as using internet research, market reports and government reports, businesses gather market research. The bottom line is if you seek community engagement in what you are doing, you must first be active in that particular community. Enago Academy offers comprehensive and up-to-date resources for researchers, publishers, editors, and students to learn and share their experience about research and publishing. Go online, post, and comment on any content that might be of interest to your field of research, but remember to think well before you post anything to make sure that your comments are appropriate. LinkedIn: It is a professional networking platform. Is the use of social media the most appropriate method? “Supplementary Guidance on the Use of Social Media.” This form of communication provides a lot of opportunity for companies and individuals to reach a massive audience. Research and Innovation ServicesUniversity of St AndrewsCollege GateSt AndrewsKY16 9AJ, © 2020 The University of St Andrews is a charity registered in Scotland, No: SC013532. However, the ethical framework relating to research using social media has not been very well-developed, and there are still many questions for a would-be social media researcher to ponder. If an increased reach is primarily what you seek, then you must be active in multiple communities related to your specialty. “A Taxonomy of Ethical Tensions in Inferring Mental Health States from Social Media.” In Proceedings of the Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT* ‘19). 2019), Are you inferring or using special category data? Weaver, Matthew. The public, persistent and pervasive nature of social network sites has led to several research controversies involving their use: We can consider two different types of social media research: the active use of social media where researchers participate, or passive use where data are collected and may not involve interaction with participants. See for instance (Reuter et al. Norval, Chris, and Tristan Henderson. 2017. Social Media and Research. Of course, there other ways to use social media. Making good connections and keeping them is an ongoing commitment. 2019), If not are you safeguarding people’s rights? Our list of the most interesting social media research paper topics. Of those accounts, whatever one’s goal is, is it being projected across multiple platforms? However, the fast-paced and live aspect of social media can drive skeptical researchers not to publish, but successful reactions and quick responses can increase a researcher’s credibility.

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