Although legislation for consolidation of holdings has been enacted by almost all the states, it has been implemented only in Punjab, Haryana and in some parts of Uttar Pradesh. Another 19 per cent were small holdings (1-2 hectare) taking up 17.3 per cent of the total operated area. Content Guidelines 2. At present there are number of agencies engaged in warehousing and storage activities. The policy statements are designed towards making available to the Indian farmer, adequate quantities of seed of superior quality at the appropriate time and place and at an affordable price so as to meet the country’s food and nutritional security goals. It has been estimated that about 70 per cent of growth in agricultural production can be attributed to increased fertilizer application. Foundation seed is the second stage in seed production chain and is the progeny of breeder seed. In order to maintain the quality of the fertilizers, 52 fertilizer quality control laboratories have been set up in different parts of the country. There has been a steady increase in the flow of institutional credit to agriculture over the years (Table 22.3). In most of small villages, the farmers sell their produce to the money lender from whom they usually borrow money. Large tracts in Punjab and Haryana have been rendered useless (areas affected by salinity, alkalinity and water-logging), due to faulty irrigation. The Food Corporation of India (F.C.I. Large tracts of fertile land suffer from soil erosion by wind and water. Not Enough Agricultural Land. There was practically no use of chemical fertilizers at the time of Independence As a result of initiative by the government and due to change in the attitude of some progressive farmers, the consumption of fertilizers increased tremendously. The newly plowed lands usually are considered marginal, meaning they are too steep, nonporous or too sandy, or deficient in some other way.When natural vegetative cover blankets these soils, it protects them from erosive agents: water, wind, ice, or gravity. In most cases, these farmers are forced, under socio-economic conditions, to carry on distress sale of their produce. Traditional farming is not only the world’s oldest farming method but also the main source of improving phase of farming technology like conventional, modern and organic farming it promote genetic … Rajasthan with vast sandy stretches and Nagaland with the prevailing ‘Jhoom’ (shifting agriculture) have larger average sized holdings of 4 and 7.15 hectares respectively. The fertilizer problem is, therefore, both acute and complex. and State Warehousing Corporation are among the principal agencies engaged in this task. Indian seeds programme largely adheres to limited generation system for seed multiplication. This is a serious problem which can be solved by using more manures and fertilizers. In addition, there is one Central Fertilizer Quality Control and Training Institute at Faridabad with its three regional centres at Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Consolidation of about 45 million holdings has been done till 1990-91 in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. Copyright 10. Agriculture is an important industry and like all other industries it also requires capital. The increased use of these inputs has saved a lot of crops, especially the food crops from unnecessary wastage. Manures and fertilizers play the same role in relation to soils as good food in relation to body. Most roads in the rural areas are Kutcha (bullock- cart roads) and become useless in the rainy season. The only answer to this ticklish problem is the consolidation of holdings which means the reallocation of holdings which are fragmented, the creation of farms which comprise only one or a few parcels in place of multitude of patches formerly in the possession of each peasant. Since the agriculturists’ capital is locked up in his lands and stocks, he is obliged to borrow money for stimulating the tempo of agricultural production. The role of capital input is becoming more and more important with the advancement of farm technology. But indiscriminate use of biocides has resulted in wide spread environmental pollution which takes its own toll. The steady industrial growth coupled with the ever-increasing urbanization is leaving little to no room for any agricultural land. Small and fragmented land-holdings: The seemingly abundance of net sown area of 141.2 million hectares and total cropped area of 189.7 million […] Indian soils have been used for growing crops over thousands of years without caring much for replenishing. Further it is shocking to note that a large proportion of 59 per cent holdings in 1990- 91 were marginal (below 1 hectare) accounting for 14.9 per cent of the total operated area. The main suppliers of money to the farmer are the money-lenders, traders and commission agents who charge high rate of interest and purchase the agricultural produce at very low price. ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the major problems and their possible solutions have been discussed as follows. Some progress has been made for mechanising agriculture in India after Independence. Little or no use of machines is made in ploughing, sowing, irrigating, thinning and pruning, weeding, harvesting threshing and transporting the crops. This has led to depletion and exhaustion of soils resulting in their low productivity. Disclaimer 9. In this way the holdings become smaller and more fragmented with each passing generation. Rural credit scenario has undergone a significant change and institutional agencies such as Central Cooperative Banks, State Cooperative Banks, Commercial Banks, Cooperative Credit Agencies and some Government Agencies are extending loans to farmers on easy terms. Linking each village by metalled road is a gigantic task and it needs huge sums of money to complete this task. But its use as such is limited because much of cow dung is used as kitchen fuel in the shape of dung cakes. Certified seed is the ultimate stage in seed production chain and is the progeny of foundation seed. The remuneration of the services provided by the middlemen increases the load on the consumer, although the producer does not derive similar benefit. The principal drawback is the low productivity and the limited choice of crop varieties. Storage facilities in the rural areas are either totally absent or grossly inadequate. This scheme provides storage facilities to the farmers near their fields and in particular to the small and marginal farmers. The problem of small and fragmented holdings is more serious in densely populated and intensively cultivated states like Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar and eastern part of Uttar Pradesh where the average size of land holdings is less than one hectare and in certain parts it is less than even 0.5 hectare. The land belonging to the father is equally distributed among his sons. Production of breeder and foundation seeds and certified seeds distribution have gone up at an annual average rate of 3.4 per cent, 7.5 per cent and 9.5 per cent respectively, between 2001-02 and 2005-06). Pests, germs and weeds cause heavy loss to crops which amounted to about one third of the total field produce at the time of Independence. Large tracts still await irrigation to boost the agricultural output. In spite of the large scale mechanisation of agriculture in some parts of the country, most of the agricultural operations in larger parts are carried on by human hand using simple and conventional tools and implements like wooden plough, sickle, etc. Thus increase in the consumption of fertilizers is a barometer of agricultural prosperity. Indian agriculture is plagued by several problems; some of them are natural and some others are manmade. These markets generally introduce a system of competitive buying, help in eradicating malpractices, ensure the use of standardised weights and measures and evolve suitable machinery for settlement of disputes thereby ensuring that the pro­ducers are not subjected to exploitation and receive remunerative prices. Large holdings (above 10 hectare) accounted for only 1.6 per cent of total holdings but covered 17.4 per cent of the operated area (Table 22.1). The main reason for this sad state of affairs is our inheritance laws. Different tracts have different levels of fertility and are to be distributed accordingly. Further, a lot of fertile agricultural land is wasted in providing boundaries. Cow dung provides the best manure to the soils. Reduction in the supply of fire wood and increasing demand for fuel in the rural areas due to increase in population has further complicated the problem. One of the main handicaps with Indian agriculture is the lack of cheap and efficient means of transportation. Need for mechanisation was specially felt with the advent of Green Revolution in 1960s. This shows that the money lender is losing ground but is still the single largest contributor of agricultural credit. However, care must be taken to safeguard against ill effects of over irrigation especially in areas irrigated by canals. The Indian seed industry had exhibited impressive growth in the past and is expected to provide further potential for growth in agricultural production: The role of seed industry is not only to produce adequate quantity of quality seeds but also to achieve varietal diversity to suit various agro-climatic zones of the country.

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