Educational attainment, job skills, and job experience are included in this type of capital as their transformation into money is a well-understood process. The first theoretical perspective that was discussed was structural functionalism, which is associated with the work of Émile Durkheim, and later, Talcott Parsons. Aurini (2006) provides useful illustrations of loose coupling in a Canadian context. Putnam emphasized membership to voluntary organizations as key indicators of social capital in communities, with the steady decline since the 1960s as proof that social capital is on the decline in the United States. The first refers to the set of routine material practices in which teachers and students are involved. Bourdieu argued that children with cultural capital were appraised more favourably by their teachers than children who did not possess this form of capital, even though this form of capital did not necessarily impact on how well the child was doing in school. See Box 2.5 for how Canadian researchers have used Bourdieu’s framework in education research. 5. Poststructuralism is associated mostly with the writings of a fairly diverse set of French philosophers (including Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault) whose only substantial area of agreement was that structuralism was flawed. These classes were entirely determined by the relationship that individuals had to the means of production. Theory is constructed with the following basic elements or building blocks: (1 ) concepts, (2) variables, (3 ) statements, and (4 ) formats. Freire uses a metaphor of “banking” to describe how the education system is organized—students are empty banks and teachers deposit knowledge into them. Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons are two major theorists in this area. See Box 2.2 for a discussion of how Marxist theory is related to approaches in pedagogy. Weber focused on education in many of his writings. For example, signals of cultural knowledge (such as the ability to speak in an “educated manner”) are rewarded in the classroom, which is easily converted into a type of economic capital—educational attainment. A type of social capital that is “inclusive” in that it is used for information diffusion and linkage to other groups. Having emerged in the early 1990s, third wave feminism is what is most commonly (but not exclusively) associated with feminist approaches in research today. Lehmann (2009) used Bourdieu’s ideas of cultural capital and habitus to explore how first-generation university students from working class backgrounds integrated into the culture of the university. Only when the normative functions once exercised by institutions such as the family and religion turned into a relationship of mutual dependence could these children become real Canadian citizens. According to Parsons, schools level the playing field so that children are assessed on the basis of merit—how they are judged is based only on how they perform on a standardized set of goals regardless of social background. Marxist theory and neo-Marxism enjoyed popularity in the sociology of education in 1970s and 1980s, but has since fallen from favour as the theoretical paradigm of choice among researchers. a very macrosocial approach. French sociologist Raymond Boudon (b. Bourdieu is one of many theorists associated with what is known as poststructuralism. The first reading discusses the relationship between sociology and education, why it is useful to study the sociology of education, who has a stake in educational systems Marxist theory and neo-Marxism have largely been superseded by other theories in the discipline, particularly postmodern theories of gender and race, which are discussed below. Within CRT, Whiteness refers to people who are phenotypically (i.e., appear as) Caucasian and have experienced the socialization of living in a culture where they are the dominant group. He found that students made different claims about racism based on perception, which were very specific to students and particular contexts. Durkheim’s belief that society is held together by a common set of values and morals is at the heart of structural functionalism because it emphasizes how the various parts of a social system work together. Students from working class backgrounds, however, are at a disadvantage because they typically do not possess much cultural capital.

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