The activity is recorded after 24 h of treatment with a continuous supply of fresh leaves for healthy growth. %PDF-1.5 After 4 to 28 days, the pupa emerges by cutting a circular hole in the seed coat. During large infestations, heat and moisture are produced, leading to colonisation by moulds and mites. Detection and Inspection (for general aspects see S. granarius). Other common secondary insects are: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, Cryptolestes sp., Plodia interpunctella (Huebner) and Ephestia cautella (Walker). There is generally no external evidence that the larvae have been eating until when the adult weevil chews through the seed coat and emerges. During the course of grain storage, different pest control methods may be applied depending on the types of storage devices used (Table 4.5). Some secondary insects feed on the mould rather than the food product. Both the beetle and the larva produce damage to the products. Sitophilus oryzae (L.) is one of the most important insect pests infesting stored food grains. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Adobe PDF Library 10.0; modified using iTextSharp 5.1.3 (c) 1T3XT BVBARice weevil infestation,Sitophilus oryzae, Imported rice, Parboiled rice, Stored grain pests <>stream Sitophilus oryzae also infests stored pulses. 2 0 obj Commonly, loss of weight is up to 5%, but severe infestations increase the losses up to 40%. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 9 0 R ] Larvae bore the grains and complete their development inside the grains. The first evidence of infestation is the holes on grains. /Type /XObject Development of pest management strategies that favor the action of natural parasites may have some potential. The primary insect's larvae and adults feed entirely within the kernels of grain or chew through the outer coat and devour the inside of the grain or cereal. E;IFIK�Y-���"�]- However, dehulling and splitting the kernels affects the behaviour of S. oryzae in different ways. Seven days later, the following insects had been captured: rice weevil, sawtoothed grain beetle, Indianmeal moth, drugstore beetle, foreign grain beetle (Ahasverus advena), red flour beetle, and flat grain beetle (Cryptolestes pusillus). Life Cycle- The female weevil between April to October, lays about 400 eggs in the holes of seed made by her mandibles. Attacks from Sitophillus oryzae can start in the field, when the moisture content is about 20% (although Sitophilus zeamais is the stronger flier and more likely to infest crops before harvest). 22. During storage of sorghum and millet kernels, the main pests responsible for the losses are grain weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) and large grain borers (Prostephanus truncatus), small grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) (Hengsdijk and Conijn, 2014; McFarlane, 1989; Beta et al., 2016). Inactive when it is completely dark, mainly active at dawn and dusk, attack the grain embryo and leave a thick web grain surface, can cause 10% losses or more. Secondary infesters are not necessarily uniquely adapted to attack the food supply in the field, although they have become adapted to attack food supply already damaged by primary field insects. stream /Height 6 Storing grains in sealed, airtight underground pits or containers is a practice that usually offers a satisfactory external pest control (self-disinfesting) (McFarlane, 1989). progeny, Per cent grain damage, Per cent weight loss, Sitophilus oryzae L, Split pulses. pasta. Weevils develop inside the grain, females digging a tunnel into the grain with the chewing mouthparts at the end of the elongated snout before laying an egg and cementing over the opening with a gelatinous plug that rapidly hardens. Oxford: Academic Press, pp. Table 4.4. The breeding period is from April to October. S. oryzae, the rice weevil, and S. zeamais, the maize weevil, are found in all warm and tropical parts of the world, but S. oryzae may also be found in wheat stored in temperate climates. Preventive measures include: cool and dry storage areas, clean empty spaces. They attack the the superficial layer of the grains. 22. Damage- Maximum damage has been observed in monsoon period. The major damage to grains is done by larvae. << The harm they cause is destruction of the seeds they infest. In severe infestation the adults and larvae can be trapped by spreading gunny bags over the grains which results into clinging of the adults and larvae to the bags from which weevils should be collected and destroyed.

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