Performs best in pure stands at quite high density. A 4-5-year rotation has been found to free the field completely of the wilt pathogen (causing fungal agent). They feed on leaves, flowers and pods, destroying them. Small circular necrotic spots (lesions) usually appear on older leaves. They attack nearly mature and dried pods. Several species of aphids have been reported feeding on pigeon pea. Pigeon pea will grow optimally in a well drained soil with a pH between 5.0 and 7.0. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is actually a perennial legume from the family Fabaceae.The seeds have become a common food in Asia, Africa and Latin America. There is no standard spacing - spacing depends on variety, soil type and production system. Surveys of insect pest damage and pest management practices on pigeon pea in farmers' fields in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. A seed of this plant. Cutworms cut the stem of plants below the soil surface. The male is smaller. Cowpea seed beetle / Bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) adults are 2.-3.5 mm long. After harvest the stems are cut back to facilitate re-growth and a second crop is harvested in the subsequent season. Crop Protection Compendium, 2005 Edition. Tolerant to insect pests and Fusarium wilt, Performs well at altitudes 10-1500 m. Grain greyish in colour, "Komboa" (performs well below altitude of 1500 m; early maturing about 90 - 100 days; grain mottled cream and brown; potential yield of about 4 t/ha), "Mali" (adapted to altitude between 500 - 1500 m; medium maturity: 130 - 150 days; grain yield 1.0 - 3.0 t/ha; resistant to Fusarium wilt; tolerant to insect pests and drought), "Tumia" (performs well below 1500 m altitude; recommended for areas with low to medium rainfall (250 - 600 mm); maturity less than 150 days; grain yield of 1.8 - 2.4 t/ha; white grain colour; susceptible to Fusarium wilt; tolerant to drought), "Luwe 1 - 5" (maturity of about 159 days; grain yield of 1.2 t/ha; white grain colour; susceptible to Fusarium wilt), "Apio Elina" (local variety; grown between 1000 - 1175 m; maturity: 6 - 9 months; grain yield: 250 - 500 kg/ha), "Adyang" (local variety; maturity: 6 - 9 months; yield: 250 - 450 kg/ha), "ICPL 87091" (maturity: 97 - 104 days; gain yield: 1.99 t/ha; white grain colour), "ICPL 87101" (maturity: 93 - 102 days; grain yield: 2.2 t/ha; brown grain colour), "ICPL 90029" (maturity: 92 - 104 days; grain yield: 1.6 - 2.5 t/ha; brown grain colour). Oestermann, H., Dreyer, M. (1995). The dry grain is also an important local pulse and export commodity in several African countries (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda) (Minja, et al, 1999). gums, lantana, khaki weed etc.) The beetles also chew small holes in leaflets and flowers. Black legume aphids (Aphis craccivora) on cowpea, (c) David Riley, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org. Visit Haiti", National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). The African isolates of the fungus produce concentric areas on the leaf spots. Pigeon Pea and chickpea insect identification handbook. Post-harvest losses are highly variable, but losses can be over 90%. Ⓒ Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org): Dirk Lange, Ⓒ Clemson University, USDA, www.ipmimages.org, Ⓒ Courtesy EcoPort (http://www.ecoport.org): Y.L. Aphids seldom are a problem on pigeon pea, probably due to the effect of natural enemies. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Hillock, R. J., Minja, E., Mwaga, A., Silim Naddy, M., Subrahmanyam, P. (2000). Parasitic wasps in particular are very important for natural control of whiteflies. The pod weevil Apion species on bean pod. Adults of the lima bean pod borer are brown moths with a wing span of about 20-25 mm. Plant in fields with no previous record of nematode infestation. Provide good growing conditions for the trees. Pigeon pea is well balanced nutritionally and an excellent source of protein. Inputs such as fertilisers, irrigation and pesticides are hardly used. Fully grown caterpillars are 35-50 mm long. Flowering is triggered by short days, whilst with long days plants grow vegetative. Pigeon pea 1. When damaged plants are detected, the cutworms normally can be found near the damaged plant and can be removed by hand. Jassids (leafhoppers) have been reported to cause damage to pigeon peas in Kenya. measure about 1 cm in length. Affected fields show patches of dead plants. Shanower, T.G., Romeis, J., Minja, E.M. (1999). Heavy infestation results in partial defoliation. sorghum, millets), cotton or groundnut. However, care should be taken, since when disturbed, they can release a liquid that burns the skin. Updated on 8th July 2019. Early instars are about 7-12 mm long. "Conservation and use of traditional vegetables in Ethiopia", "ICRISAT-led global team cracks pigeonpea genome", "Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers", "The first draft of the pigeonpea genome sequence", "Genome-wide identification of miRNAs and lncRNAs in Cajanus cajan", "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Pigeon peas (red gram), mature seeds, raw", "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28", "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis", "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6", Decoding of the Pigeonpea (Arhar) Genome by Indian Scientists, ICRISAT-led global team cracks pigeonpea genome, Pigeonpea a wonder crop for women farmers in Rajasthan, India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pigeon_pea&oldid=990450460, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 15:20. Pigeon pea is regarded as a good plant for restoration of fertility and is used in a rotation with crops such as maize-groundnut-tobacco-pigeon pea for three to four years in Uganda. They are the most common and widespread insect pests in storage. Surveys in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda (Minja et al., 1999) have shown that the most important pests of pigeon pea pods and seeds in the region are: Varieties that mature during the dry season have low damage levels (Snapp et al., 2003). Nene. Traditional uses as medicine are many, e.g. Pigeon pea is produced as a vegetable or export grain crop in southern and eastern Africa. Adults feed on the flowers and reduce the number of pods that are set. Information Bulletin No. Plants develop tolerance to the disease with age. Real size (0.9 to 1.1 mm). Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora dreschsleri f.sp. CAB International (2005). It has very slow initial development (up to 2 months after planting). There are no obvious external symptoms of attack till the fully-grown maggot chews holes in the pod walls leaving a window through which the flies emerge after pupation in the pod. 46 (1): 7-18. Main pigeon pea producing regions are the Indian sub-continent, Central America and Southern and Eastern Africa. Avoid planting of pigeon peas close to bean fields. Damage occurs mainly during the dry season. Bird perches placed just above the crop canopy are also reported to reduce the numbers of pod borers, In areas where the pod fly is a problem, it is best to avoid growing a mixture of, Neem has given control of a related pod fly (. 2. Red spider mites are about 0.6 mm long. It is grown in the same range of altitude as "KAT 60/82" but is more adapted to the more humid coastal zones. Family: Papilionaceae, (Leguminosae) Common Names: Toor dal,Togari bele, Congo pea, Angola Pea, Red gram, No-eye pea, tropical green pea, Gungo pea, Puerto Rico Pea; Pois cajanor or pois d’Angole (French) Pigeon pea is a tropical leguminous shrub (Cajanus cajan). The African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Pigeon pea thrives best in seedbeds prepared by deep ploughing and cultivations to reduce weeds. Nymphs resemble adults, but have no wings, and run sideways when disturbed. Cutworm (Agrotis sp.) Spraying with aromatic plants (e.g. Usually developing in the pods and feeding partly mature seeds. The fungus is soil-borne and it also survives on infected crop debris. Use neem kernel extract and other neem products. Some whiteflies cause major damage to cassava as vectors of cassava viruses. Ants, parasitic wasps and pirate bugs are important in natural control. Once plants are established they grow vigorously. Adults are 2-3.5 mm long. They feed on the lower leaf surface causing white or yellowish spots on the upper leaf surface. Termites more often attack sickly or water stressed plants than healthy plants. F. udum is seed and soil-borne. Green pods are picked over a long period in home gardens or hedge crops. Termites live in the soil in hills, construct tunnel from the hills to the palms and feed on all parts of young coconut palms. The fungus is seed-borne. and McDonald, D. (1993). Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Green stink bug (nymphs and adults). The most important pests of pigeon peas are insects feeding on pigeon pea pods and seeds. Some farmers in East Africa use wood ash in grain stored for food or seed for planting, or chillies or smoke from cooking fire to preserve seeds for planting. Plants that are attacked but not killed often form large galls on their stems especially at the edges of spots. Pigeon peas aren’t your typical garden pea.They are a big plant – you could even call them a small tree.

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