In Colombia, an ointment made of tamarind pulp, butter, and other ingredients is used to rid domestic animals of vermin. The bark of the tree is regarded as an effective astringent, tonic and febrifuge. The tamarind weevil (S. linearis) is only known from the seeds of tamarind. Tamarind leaves and flowers are useful as mordants in dyeing. A mature tree may annually produce 330 to 500 lbs (150-225 kg) of fruits, of which the pulp may constitute 30 to 55%, the shells and fiber, 11 to 30 %, and the seeds, 33 to 40%. It is, further, administered to alleviate sunstroke, Datura poisoning, and alcoholic intoxication. There are types of tamarinds that are sweeter than most. In Madagascar, seedlings have begun to bear in the 4th year; in Mexico, usually in the 5th year; but in India, there may be a delay of 10 to 14 years before fruiting. The tannin-rich seedcoat (testa) is under investigation as having some utility as an adhesive for plywoods and in dyeing and tanning, though it is of inferior quality and gives a red hue to leather. In the past, the great bulk of seeds available as a by-product of processing tamarinds, has gone to waste. The food uses of the tamarind are many. However, today, young trees are usually grown in nurseries. Inconspicuous, inch-wide flowers, borne in small racemes, are 5-petalled (2 reduced to bristles), yellow with orange or red streaks. The wood ashes are employed in tanning and in de-hairing goatskins. However, no cold damage was noted in South Florida following the low temperatures of the winter of 1957-1958 which had severe effects on many mango, avocado, lychee and lime trees. The lac may be harvested and sold as stick-lac for the production of lacquers and varnish. The pulp is made into a variety of products. The strained pulp, much like apple butter in appearance, can be stored under refrigeration for use in cold drinks or as a sauce for meats and poultry, plain cakes or puddings. Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) is a native Australian leafroller moth, which is a serious pest of several horticultural crops. In India there are host pests that attacked the tree, including mealybugs, caterpillars, aphids , white flies, thrips and a variety of scales. The pulp is used for many medicinal purposes including as a laxative, for fevers and inflammation, in a gargle for sore throats and mixed with salt as a liniment for rheumatism. Tamarind Uses. Another mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis, is less of a menace except in South India where it is common on many fruit trees and ornamental plants. Tamarind seeds yield an amber oil useful as an illuminant and as a varnish especially preferred for painting dolls and idols. The tamarind was certainly introduced into tropical America, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the West Indies much earlier. endstream endobj startxref Pickers are not allowed to knock the fruits off with poles as this would damage developing leaves and flowers. Fruit borers include larvae of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, also of Virachola isocrates, Dichocrocis punctiferalis, Tribolium castaneum, Phycita orthoclina, Cryptophlebia (Argyroploca) illepide, Oecadarchis sp., Holocera pulverea, Assara albicostalis, Araecerus suturalis, Aephitobius laevigiatus, and Aphomia gularis. In northwestern India, the tree grows well but the fruits do not ripen. As they mature, the pods fill out somewhat and the juicy, acidulous pulp turns brown or reddish-brown. Egg - Laid singly, glued to the … Other predators attacking the leaves or flowers include the caterpillars, Thosea aperiens, Thalarsodes quadraria, Stauropus alternus, and Laspeyresia palamedes; the black citrus aphid, Toxoptera aurantii, the whitefly, Acaudaleyrodes rachispora; thrips, Ramaswamia hiella subnudula, Scirtothrips dorsalis, and Haplothrips ceylonicus; and cow bugs, Oxyrhachis tarandus, Otinotus onerotus, and Laptoentrus obliquis. Thus, it has become an economically important species not only in Africa, but also in Asia and America to address food, nutrition, economic and climate change insecurities. The tamarind, a slow-growing, long-lived, massive tree reaches, under favorable conditions, a height of 80 or even 100 ft (24-30 m), and may attain a spread of 40 ft (12 m) and a trunk circumference of 25 ft (7.5 m). It is highly wind-resistant, with strong, supple branches, gracefully drooping at the ends, and has dark-gray, rough, fissured bark. The red pulp of some types contains the pigment, chrysanthemin. Identification of the pest Adult: Small grey coloured beetle. The most serious pests of the tamarind are scale insects (Aonidiella orientalis, Aspidiotus destructor and Saisetia oleae), mealy-bugs (Nipaecoccus viridis and Planococcus lilacinus), and seed beetles. Wide boards are rare, despite the trunk dimensions of old trees, since they tend to become hollow-centered. To keep the fruit intact for marketing fresh, the stalks must be clipped from the branches so as not to damage the shell. 0 Tamarind preparations are universally recognized as refrigerants in fevers and as laxatives and carminatives. Nursery-grown trees are usually transplanted during the early rainy season.

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