Media should accept and carry out positive development tasks in line with nationally established policy. the technological simulation of consciousness, when the creative process of knowing will be collectively and corporately extended to the whole of human society.” Technology is an extension of man. Media should avoid offence to majority, or dominant, moral and political values. To these and other industry moguls, increasing profit margin means increasing the size of their audience – that is, the number of viewers, readers, listeners, etc. Identify how each of these theories can be used today? He tried to explain how pictures that arise spontaneously in people’s minds come to be—a simplification of his theory is that we live in second-hand worlds. Do you think these theories are still relevant for modern mass media? John McMuria - A participatory culture is not necessarily a diverse culture. “The making of the new and the rearranging of the old” (Bentley, 1997). By looking at this theory we are able to see that the media in society tends to ignore the good and the hard working and focuses on the fun and the trouble. Society has a right to punish for the anti-societal publication. Althusser - Suggests that 'ideological state apparatus' is enforced by media, education, religion and family who maintain hegemony and enforce dominant values across society. Ken Robinson, Spontaneity takes practice - Csikszentmihalyi (or a theorist), Ken Robinson identified creative habits of mind:  Flexibility – alternate ways of thinking; Willingness - to think the impossible; Confidence - to try things out; Ability - to handle uncertainty - perseverance in adversity, the ability to create  Erskine argued that people seeking to enlighten others, and not intending to mislead, should be able to address the universal reason of a whole nation on what is believed to be true. Therefore, even if you’re a woman, you’re seeing the world of the film through a man’s eyes. The absence of some of the conditions in these countries which are necessary for a developed mass communication system are as follows: The normative elements of emerging development theory are shaped by the conditions described above and have both negative and positive aspects. If old consumers were isolated individuals, then new consumers are more socially connected. Levi Strauss - believed that the way we understand certain words depends not so much on any meaning they themselves directly contain, but by our understanding of the difference between the word and its 'opposite' or, as he called it 'binary opposite'. During the early 1960s, English professor Marshall McLuhan wrote two books that had an enormous effect on the history of media studies. Groups, organizations and local communities should have their own media. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this. McLuhan’s other great achievement is the popularization of the concept of media studies. Music videos can also link to film genres, this is known as intertextuality. Chris Anderson – The Long Tail; If you add up all the revenue from Niche market films the profit can be greater than or equal to the profit from one blockbuster or best-selling product. Often action codes allow characters the chance to resolve a problem through action, often violent action (gun fights/ car chases). The internet is empowering for people who like to make things, share ideas, and learn together. This theory is criticized on the following grounds. Equally, technology company Apple has used advertising and public relations to attempt to become a symbol of innovation and nonconformity. Genres sometimes appear to function ritually and others ideologically. Nick Lacey - considers the 'repertoire of elements' that work in combination to suggest a media text belongs to a particular genre or mix of genres. E.g. A typical uses and gratifications study explores the motives for media consumption and the consequences associated with use of that media. Gramsci – Suggested that dominant ideologies can change over time, moving away from heritage and tradition if enough audiences/groups enforce their own discourse (We media). In addition, the principle tenet of Soviet political life is one of unity The rise of the working class, the revolution, was a movement of unity within Soviet Society This joining together of the people into a classless society has become the philosophy of the Soviet state. The press becomes a means to an end rather than an instrument of criticism of either means or ends. This explains somewhat genres repetitive nature. Every text participates in one or several genres, there is no genreless text.”. The cultural codes tend to point to our shared knowledge about the way the world works. Kilbourne – Suggests women are more often shown “dismembered” (just parts of their bodies shown), associated with products, shown as smaller than a man, engaged in various forms of ritualized subordination, prostrate or recumbent, bent or leaning back, infantilized (with finger coyly in their mouth, standing pigeon-toed, wearing little girl clothes, sucking on lollipops, etc.) Action codes are seen to appeal particularly to men and are more prominent in some genres than others. The internet is the most extraordinary of these external storage systems, offering access to a vast array of information, text and audio-visual material, and giving people a platform to share and exchange ideas, and to collaborate on projects together. "In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female". Ien Ang detailed that media producers have an imaginary entity in mind before the construction of a media product. Alan Kirby - says postmodernism is dead and buried. To understand the Soviet media theory of the press, one must examine the Soviet interpretation of the word “freedom”. Pre broadband Niche products were hard to find and expensive to buy, now online shopping/sharing makes it easy to cater for everyone's taste. The Benefits of Business to Business Partnerships, Audit Theories - Theories of Demand for Audit, Management Principles: Principle of Bureaucracy, Keynesian and Classical Economists Views about Disequilibrium, Modern Portfolio Theory – Markowitz Portfolio Selection Model. Here are his main points, some expanded in detail. Gradually, the rights of the press and libertarianism began to gain ground and became part of the constitutional doctrine both in the United States and later in England. Published in 1962 and 1964, respectively, the Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media both traced the history of media technology and illustrated the ways these innovations had changed both individual behavior and the wider culture. Faust: Selling your soul to the devil may bring riches but eventually your soul belongs to him, e.g. He also came up with 10 sound arguments why the ‘effects model’ is flawed. Jonathan Schroeder - Viewing such recorded images gives the viewer's gaze a voyeuristic dimension., 'to gaze implies more than to look at - it signifies a psychological relationship of power, in which the gazer is superior to the object of the gaze' (Schroeder 1998, 208). In this way, gender becomes a performance, with the media providing the script. For positive uses of the media in national development.

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