Фабрично-заводская промышленность России//Россия 1913 год — Российская Академия Наук Институт Российской истории. Thus, for more than three decades, there was a more than four-fold increase. 4. The construction of new factories drew thousands of landless peasants into the cities in search of work. 2. 962 Words4 Pages. Production of the main types of industrial products in 1887–1913, million pounds A major political party emerged to represent workers. A new period of significant development of industry is associated with the reign of Catherine II. Падение крепостного права, R. Portal. The country was submitted to an intensive campaign against hidden “enemies of the people.” This manifested itself both in a series of public, or publicized, trials, and in a massive terror operation against the population as a whole. The main of these conditions was the personal liberation of 23 million serfs who formed the wage labor market. The Soviets provided a few hundred tanks and aircraft and a few thousand military specialists, and in addition as many as 42,000 volunteers of the International Brigades were largely raised by the Comintern. It was not until the early 1960s that the population became equally urban and rural. In the two latter cases (and in certain others) Stalin sought to have the offenders executed and was thwarted by a Politburo majority. All independence of mind on the part of any of the Stalinist leadership had effectively vanished. Positive Effects on Women. The second, which came later, was the claim that they had in fact secured unprecedented increases in production. Lavrenty Beria took on the NKVD leadership and supervised a considerable reduction in the tempo of the purge. Kirov’s death was followed at once by a decree on the summary trial of terrorists. On the basis of a centralized manufactory, industries such as paper and glass developed, the products of which mainly met the country's needs. The same applied in all the professions. The achievements of Ivan are great. Catherine II also took steps to mitigate the situation of peasants in the Russian Empire. But while these trials received considerable publicity they were not made the central feature of Soviet politics. In the field of metallurgical production and metalworking, at the beginning of Catherine's reign there were 182 enterprises, and at the end of the 18th century about 200. The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When it was clear that the war was lost, Soviet support was withdrawn. History was falsified on a massive scale to give him a major role in the Bolshevik underground, the Revolution, and the Civil War—in particular in the new “Short Course” Communist Party history, which became the basic text of Stalinism and sold 40 million copies throughout the world. Serf labor continued to dominate mining and metallurgy, especially in the Urals. [11], Certain industries of the Russian Empire were characterized by extremely rapid growth. GDP per capita was 3.5 times lower than in the United States, 3.3 times lower than in the UK, 1.7 times lower than in Italy[16], Despite the ordeals during the First World War, the industry of the Russian Empire continued to grow. At the end of the 18th century, the number of textile enterprises reached 1082, of which 158 were woolen, 318 were linen and 357 were silk. [9][10], Shares of Russia, United States, Great Britain, Germany and France in world industrial production (in%) [8] In 1913, Russia's share in world industry was 5.3% (fifth place in the world). On February 18, 1937, Stalin’s old ally and Politburo colleague Ordzhonikidze committed suicide. With the start of operations of the Baku district, Russia in 1900 came out on top in oil production. After the death of Peter I, up to the middle of the century, the industry of Russia, in spite of everything, continued to develop. The scope of industrial construction was greatly enlarged. [7]. These were all fruitless, being exposed and denounced on short order. It was announced that Aleksey Stakhanov, a miner, had devised a method for immensely increasing productivity. Peter I was aware of the need for the country to land for the development of efficient trade. A planned economy was to be introduced with, as its first task, the direction of all possible resources into intensive industrialization. At the end of 1932 it was announced that the First Five-Year Plan had been successfully completed. In March 1938 came the third Moscow Trial. Russia supplied 50% of world egg exports; it owned 80% of the world production of flax. It is now clear, in any case, that Stalin, if not in his public stance, felt threatened by any substantial relaxation and hampered by his inadequately obedient subordinates. Industrialization contributes to negative externalities such as … Industrialization in the Russian Empire was a reaction to the industrialization process in Western Europe countries. But it was linked with the policy of payment by piecework, intended to set the individual worker’s targets in industry higher than was normally possible, and was highly unpopular. This started the process of crowding out the manufacturing with a factory, which proceeded extremely unevenly in different industries and in different regions. Essay on The Industrial Revolution in Russia. [3]. 2 пар.2, Экономическая история Поляк Г.Б., 2016. At the end of the 1870s, 58% of the textile industry was produced on 50 thousand mechanical looms. 2-е изд. The system became institutionalized. Even in 1940 just over two-thirds of the population was classified as rural and just under one-third as urban. The removal of all alternative political figures was matched by what was later called “the cult of personality” of Stalin. Russian canvas was in great and constant demand in England and other sea powers. Subsequent industrialization was carried out in the USSR in the late 1920s using administrative-command methods based on five-year plans under totalitarianism. (Trotsky was killed by an NKVD agent in 1940.). The impact of Ivan on Russia. The crisis in the mining industry also affected the position of state-owned military factories, where modern metalworking and mechanical production increasingly dealt with the supply of low-quality raw materials. In the republics the charges in many cases were now dealt with in secret, and the main themes of intensive public propaganda invariably included “bourgeois nationalist” plotting. The primary task, as to an only slightly lesser degree throughout the Stalin epoch and even later, was the buildup of heavy industry. In September the NKVD chief, Yagoda, was replaced by Nikolay Yezhov, from whom the Yezhovshchina, the worst phase of the terror in 1937–38, took its name. Wealthy industrialists were viewed as heroes. He developed a modern Russian state and laid the foundations for a great Empire. The ultimate impact of the Industrial Revolution was the formation of an unprecedented regulatory state designed to protect workers and consumers. As Stalin noted, no deviations remained to be combated. Thereafter there were no substantial changes. To cope with the large-scale arrests, special extra-legal tribunals were set up, in particular the notorious NKVD “troikas,” which sentenced hundreds of thousands of people to death in their absence. VI, part 2, pp. In the years 1841-1845 they were imported in the amount of 668 thousand rubles, in the next five years this amount more than doubled, and in the first half of the 1850s amounted to more than two million rubles. Исторический словарь. However, manual labor continued to dominate almost completely in Russian factories until the 1840s. Along with traditional extensive methods, intensive methods began to be used more and more widely. Глава 19.3 Формирование капиталистического уклада во второй половине XVIII в. In all not fewer than some 5 million people were arrested, of whom no more than 10 percent survived. The founding of the Free Economic Society (1765) contributed to the propaganda of the achievements of agronomic science, although so far on a "focal" scale. selfstudyhistory.com Since the 1600s, explorers had pushed the Russian frontier eastward across Siberia to the Pacific. Both cases were mainly concerned with sabotage. The Groningen Growth and Development Centre, Б. Л. Бразоль ЦАРСТВОВАНИЕ ИМПЕРАТОРА НИКОЛАЯ II 1894—1917 В ЦИФРАХ И ФАКТАХ, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Industrialization_in_the_Russian_Empire&oldid=989114428, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 03:19. [6]. At the same time, pay and rations were linked to productivity. [14] The total volume of grain exports amounted to 651 million rubles.

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