(500) 8. Necessary / Sufficient Condition. Begging the question. E.g. Argument. Famously, Descartes defines knowledge in terms of doubt. And if it be impossible to assign any, this will serve to confirm our suspicion. In a definition, the definiendum is the phrase being defined, the definiens is what defines the definiendum. Philosophical Thought. E.g. metaphysical sciences? if and only if it is both valid, and all of its premises are. What are we never able to discover when we consider the operation of causes in the external world (515.2), Are we able to discover it when we consider the internal operations of the mind? Reductio ad absurdum (“Reduction to absurdity”). How should we ascertain the meaning of a philosophical term Philosophy and Human Understanding Post a thoughtful response to both of the following questions (your response should be at least two paragraphs in length): What might we call "Hume's microscope"? A normative term is one that cannot be used except in making normative claims. A deduction is a valid argument. (514), 20. Deduction. Can it be demonstrated (i.e., by reasoning a priori) that because (1) all X's have in the past been followed by Y's, (2) X's in the future will be followed by Y's? (515.1), 21. What is the "chief obstacle" to our improvement in the moral or The question is ambiguous. Necessary / Contingent. (497), 2. Why does he say his own position is "somewhat extraordinary"? (507), Without the influence of this, of what would we be entirely ignorant? Give examples of each. could be trusted to the "fallacious deductions of our reason"? A proposition is knowable a priori iff one could be justified in believing it on the basis of reason alone. the way the mind processes certain characteristics of an object through its relationship to the senses. Not to be confused with the fallacious: if X, then Y, Y, therefore X (“Affirmation of the consequent”). (503), 12. Valid. Criticizing a position by calling attention to irrelevant personal characteristics of someone who holds it. Dependent on, or in some other way related to, experience. the branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including abstract concepts such as being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space. How many letters does the word “London” contain? (What three arguments does H. give to support his view?) Use/Mention. Upon what relation do all reasonings concerning matters of fact seem founded? What is the basis for our justified beliefs in historical matters of fact? From the answers to 11 and 12, what follows about the epistemological status of the principle "similar events have similar effects"? 23. (Similar: eo ipso.). An argument is sound iff (a) its premises are all true and (b) it is valid. A branch of metaphysics concerned specifically with what (kinds of) things there are. This section addresses different accounts of thesense of talk of “life's meaning” (and of“significance,” “importance,” and othersynonyms). A priori / a posteriori. 9. All cats are fat, a fortiori Tibbles is fat. What two arguments does H. give in support of this conclusion? Any inference of the form: if X, then Y, not Y, therefore not X (“Denial of the consequent”). What may we do if definition is not sufficient? Forexample, in ordinary parlance ‘word’ is ambiguous betweena type-level reading (as in “Color and colourare spellings of the same word”), an occurrence-level reading(as in “there are thirteen words in th… What three principles of association does H. find? (1998), pp. 24. X is a necessary condition of Y iff Y could not obtain without X also obtaining. this swan is white, this other swan is white, and so is that one, therefore all swans are white. Ontology. Iff. Why is it circular to argue in a probabilistic manner that the future will be like the past? Let usthen suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas; how, create, study and share online flash cards. The word philosophical means "of or relating to philosophers or philosophy," according to Merriam-Webster. How does the belief in the existence of things not present to sensation arise, according to H.? A normative (or “prescriptive”) claim is one that could be true only if someone or other ought to do something, or something ought to be the case. (501) Are any laws of nature knowable a priori? Common Philosophical Terms. Definiens. (498) 5. the use of fallacious arguments, esp. a mouse in the house). (500), 8. A sentence is analytically true iff it is true solely in virtue of the meaning of the expressions within it. A priori / a posteriori. And if it be impossible to assign any, this will serve to confirm our suspicion. (499) 6. See also: A fortiori (“Hence still more strongly”). (497-98), 4. (521). The notions of word and word meaning are problematicto pin down, and this is reflected in the difficulties one encountersin defining the basic terminology of lexical semantics. Mentioning a word involves talking about the word itself, not about what it refers to, which is what is done in using the word. (502) What should we say to those devotees of science who look to it to unlock the ultimate secrets of natures? 14. It contains 4 types of letter (d, l, n, o) but a total of 6 letter tokens. A state of affairs is necessary iff it could not possibly have failed to obtain. Click here to study/print these flashcards. Can we discover a clear impression corresponding to the idea of power associated with our apparent ability to entertain and dismiss ideas? E.g. To what does the creative power of the mind amount? (512.2), 19. Does natural philosophy let us discover the ultimate causes of things? a belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response. Explain. How does he distinguish them? What claim does H. make about the way "all events seem" to philosophical introspection? (499), 6. This might perhaps be given, if we could first ascertain the function of man. One part of the field of life's meaning consists of the systematicattempt to clarify what people mean when they ask in virtue of whatlife has meaning. Upon what group of ideas is H. going to focus now? If the meaning alone of a true sentence is not enough to ensure its truth, it is synthetically true. (508), 15. By contrast, epistemology (again broadly) is the study of our knowledge of how things are.

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