( Log Out /  Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. ( Log Out /  One is cultural goals which are goals that place emphasis on “money success” and individual wealth. A Guide to A level scoiology with A/A* tips and tricks. •  Criminology Book One •  AQA A level Sociology Book Two Not explaining differences in the way different deviants are treated. In Cohen’s view, they resolve their frustration by rejecting mainstream middle-class values and they turn instead to other boys in the same situation, forming a delinquent subculture. An 'A' Grade A level Sociology Student who wishes to educate and help others revise the subject that I, myself, struggled with the most at A level, and does not wish to see anybody else struggling! Check out my other essays and plans here! It is not likely that criminals behave that way to intentionally improve society. In conclusion, despite the fact that people engage in deviant behaviour to achieve highly and to become successful, more recent strain theorists would instead argue that young people nowadays may pursue to achieve a variety of goals other than money success. Functionalist theories began to emerge after the industrial revolution in the 18th century. For example, his ideas of status frustration and alternative status hierarchy help to explain non-economic delinquency such as vandalism, violence and truanting. Whilst Cloward and Ohlin agree with Cohen that delinquent subcultures are the source of much deviance, unlike Cohen, they provide an explanation for different types of working-class deviance in terms of different subcultures. Criticisms of Functionalist Theories of Crime and Deviance. There is a considerable amount of evidence against this view – for example despite most people being socialised into traditional gender norms, many people today develop LGTBIQ identities; despite being socialised to obey the law, self-report studies show high levels of minor criminality. If this did not happen/ was not allowed to happen, society would stagnate. Durkheim believes that crime has two positive functions. Cohen focuses on deviance amongst working-class boys, arguing that they suffer status frustration; the result of being unable to achieve status by legitimate means (e.g. He ignores the possibility that they didn’t share these values in the first place, and so never saw themselves as failures. March 18, 2014 by John Amy. He argues that deviance is the result of a strain between two factors. ( Log Out /  Merton uses strain theory to explain some of the patterns of deviance found in society. Change ). Assess the functionalist theory of crime and deviance...Assess the functionalist view of crime and deviance. [21 marks] This essay will detail the functionalist perspective of crime and deviance. Conflict theorists (Marxists and Feminists) point out that Functionalists have a rose tinted view of society – they focus too much on the positive functions that institutions perform, ignoring the negative ways in which institutions and socialisation can have on certain people. Taking official crime statistics at face value. All you have to do is go to [INSERT THE URL] and register. Feminists for example argue that the traditional nuclear family, which is seen as necessary by Parsons, oppresses women, as they are expected to fulfil the housewife role, which ultimately makes women dependent on men for an income, and ends up benefitting men who benefit from women’s emotional and domestic labour. They include conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. They argue that professional subcultures offer many opportunities on the criminal career ladder, conflict subcultures arise in areas of high population turnover; were loosely connected and didn’t provide many legitimate or illegitimate opportunities, and retreatist subcultures failed to achieve legitimately and illegitimately. Not seeing the definition of crime and deviance as problematic. This is probably overkill to get you the 10 marks. These subcultures are seen to offer the boys an alternative status hierarchy in which they can achieve and win status from their peers through their delinquent actions. The Apprentice Final Five and Class Inequality, Globalisation, Global Criminal Networks and Crime. Find out about Acknowledgements and copyright here. Subcultural strain theories see deviance as the product of a delinquent subculture with different values from those of mainstream society. A strength of Cohen’s explanation is that it can explain non-utilitarian crime among the working-class, unlike Merton. You could take this criticism even further by arguing that Functionalist theory is itself ideological – by arguing that societies need nuclear families to provide effective socialisation, this theory itself reinforces the social order. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Functionalists see society as based on value consensus. He states that there are five different types of adaptation depending on whether an individual accepts or rejects cultural goals and the legitimate means of achieving them. A link to my Quizlet on the topic can be found here, Reminder: Do not plagiarise. Functionalist perspective of crime – revision notes Durkheim (1893) is the main sociologist in functionalism and believed that society is a stable system based on value consensus. This is known as boundary maintenance. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Postmodernists would be especially critical of the idea that society shapes the individual a postmodern, consumer age, your background and socialisation matter less – consumer society and globalisation allow much more opportunity for individuals to shape their own identities in an active way. A link to my Quizlet on the topic can be found here. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. We are making our textbooks free for your students to access online until 31st July. ( Log Out /  (30marks). He argues that crime produces a reaction from society, uniting its members, and reinforcing their collective consciousness. Rather than being based on deviant working-class values, “neo-tribes” result from different lifestyles that are influenced by a range of factors, often media-led. All change starts with an act of deviance i.e. A further criticism of this view is that whilst Durkheim argues that society requires a certain amount of deviance in order to function successfully, he offers no way of knowing how much is the right amount in order to create a good amount of change and development. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. To be on the safe side you want to provide two very different criticisms, develop both of them and briefly evaluate. Durkheim believes that crime has two positive functions. They also ignore the really ‘dark side of family life’ – domestic violence. 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